【.NET Core】ASP.NET Core之IdentityServer4(1):快速入门

内容预览:
  • OAuth 2.0 :OAuth 2.0 是一种授权协议~
  • 这是认证授权中的标识~
  • Identity Token:标识认证信息,至少包含user的sub claim~

本文中的IdentityServer4基于上节的jenkins 进行docker自动化部署。

使用了MariaDB,EF Core,AspNetIdentity,Docker

Demo地址:https://sso.neverc.cn

Demo源码:https://github.com/NeverCL/Geek.IdentityServer4

简介

OpenID Connect :常用的认证协议有SAML2p, WS-Federation and OpenID Connect – SAML2p。OpenID Connect是其中最新的协议。

OAuth 2.0 :OAuth 2.0 是一种授权协议。通过Access Token可以访问受保护的API接口。

OpenID Connect和OAuth 2.0非常相似,实际上,OpenID Connect是OAuth 2.0之上的一个扩展。

身份认证和API访问这两个基本的安全问题被合并为一个协议 – 往往只需一次往返安全令牌服务。

IdentityServer4基于ASP.NET Core 2对这两种协议的实现。

支持规范:https://identityserver4.readthedocs.io/en/release/intro/specs.html

关键词

IdentityServer:提供OpenID Connect and OAuth 2.0 protocols.

User:IdentityServer中的用户

Client:第三方应用,包括web applications, native mobile or desktop applications, SPAs etc.

Resource:包含Identity data 和 APIs。这是认证授权中的标识。

Identity Token:标识认证信息,至少包含user的sub claim。

Access Token:标识授权信息,可以包含Client 和 user的claim信息。

授权方式

Client Credentials

Client Credentials是最简单的一种授权方式。

步骤:

  1. 创建IdentityServer
    1. 定义APIs
    2. 定义Client
  2. 创建API
    1. 定义Authentication
  3. 使用Client
    1. 请求Token
    2. 使用Token

IdentityServer:

dotnet new web -o Geek.IdentityServer4 && dotnet add Geek.IdentityServer4 package IdentityServer4

Startup:

services.AddIdentityServer()
.AddDeveloperSigningCredential()
.AddInMemoryApiResources(Config.GetApiResources())
.AddInMemoryClients(Config.GetClients());
...
app.UseIdentityServer();

Config:

public static IEnumerable<ApiResource> GetApiResources()
{
return new List<ApiResource>
{
new ApiResource("api1")
};
}

public static IEnumerable<Client> GetClients()
{
return new List<Client>
{
new Client
{
ClientId = "client",
AllowedGrantTypes = GrantTypes.ClientCredentials,
ClientSecrets = { new Secret("secret".Sha256()) },
Claims = { new Claim("name","名称") },
AllowedScopes = { "api1" }
},
}
}

API:

dotnet new web -o Geek.Api && dotnet add Geek.Api package IdentityServer4.AccessTokenValidation

Startup:

services.AddMvc();
services.AddAuthentication("Bearer")//AddIdentityServerAuthentication 默认SchemeName:Bearer
.AddIdentityServerAuthentication(opt =>
{
opt.ApiName = "api1";
opt.Authority = "https://sso.neverc.cn";
});
...
app.UseAuthentication();
app.UseMvc();

Controller:

[Route("identity")]
[Authorize]
public class IdentityController : ControllerBase
{
[HttpGet]
public IActionResult Get()
{
return new JsonResult(from c in User.Claims select new { c.Type, c.Value });
}
}

Client:

dotnet new web -o Geek.Client && dotnet add Geek.Client package IdentityServer4.IdentityModel

Program:

var disco = await DiscoveryClient.GetAsync("https://sso.neverc.cn");
var tokenClient = new TokenClient(disco.TokenEndpoint, "client", "secret");
var tokenResponse = await tokenClient.RequestClientCredentialsAsync("api1");

var client = new HttpClient();
client.SetBearerToken(tokenResponse.AccessToken);
var response = await client.GetAsync("http://localhost:5001/identity");
var content = await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync();
Console.WriteLine(JArray.Parse(content));

ResourceOwnerPassword

这种认证方式需要User提供用户名和密码,所以Client为非常可信的应用才可能使用这种方式。

步骤:

  1. 定义RO Client 和 User
  2. 使用Client

Identity Server

Config:

public static IEnumerable<Client> GetClients()
{
...
new Client
{
ClientId = "ro.client",
AllowedGrantTypes = GrantTypes.ResourceOwnerPassword,

ClientSecrets = { new Secret("secret".Sha256()) },
AllowedScopes = { "api1" }
}
}
public static List<TestUser> GetUsers()
{
return new List<TestUser>
{
new TestUser
{
SubjectId = "1",
Username = "alice",
Password = "password",
}
}
}

Startup:

services.AddIdentityServer()
.AddDeveloperSigningCredential()
.AddInMemoryApiResources(Config.GetApiResources())
.AddInMemoryClients(Config.GetClients())
.AddTestUsers(Config.GetUsers());

Client

var disco = await DiscoveryClient.GetAsync("https://sso.neverc.cn");
var tokenClient = new TokenClient(disco.TokenEndpoint, "ro.client", "secret");
var tokenResponse = await tokenClient.RequestResourceOwnerPasswordAsync("alice", "password", "api1");
var client = new HttpClient();
client.SetBearerToken(tokenResponse.AccessToken);
var response = await client.GetAsync("http://localhost:5001/identity");
var content = await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync();
Console.WriteLine(JArray.Parse(content));

区分Client Credentials 和 ResourceOwnerPassword 可通过 sub claim来区分

Implicit

Implicit为隐式模式,通过浏览器端直接传输id_token

步骤:

  1. 配置IdentityServer
    1. 定义IdentityResources
    2. 定义mvc client
    3. 添加Mvc UI
  2. 创建mvc client

IdentityServer

public static IEnumerable<IdentityResource> GetIdentityResources()
{
return new List<IdentityResource>
{
new IdentityResources.OpenId(),
new IdentityResources.Profile()
};
}

...
new Client
{
ClientId = "mvc",
ClientName = "MVC Client",
AllowedGrantTypes = GrantTypes.Implicit,
ClientSecrets = { new Secret("secret".Sha256()) },
RedirectUris = { "http://localhost:5002/signin-oidc" },
PostLogoutRedirectUris = { "http://localhost:5002/signout-callback-oidc" },
AllowedScopes = new List<string>
{
IdentityServerConstants.StandardScopes.OpenId,
IdentityServerConstants.StandardScopes.Profile,
}
}

services.AddIdentityServer()
.AddDeveloperSigningCredential()
.AddInMemoryApiResources(Config.GetApiResources())
.AddInMemoryClients(Config.GetClients())
.AddTestUsers(Config.GetUsers())
.AddInMemoryIdentityResources(Config.GetIdentityResources());

添加MvcUI:

在IdentityServer项目中powershell执行:

iex ((New-Object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadString('https://raw.githubusercontent.com/IdentityServer/IdentityServer4.Quickstart.UI/release/get.ps1'))

MvcClient

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
JwtSecurityTokenHandler.DefaultInboundClaimTypeMap.Clear();
services.AddMvc();
services.AddAuthentication(options =>
{
options.DefaultScheme = "Cookies";
options.DefaultChallengeScheme = "oidc";
})
.AddCookie("Cookies")
.AddOpenIdConnect("oidc", options =>
{
options.SignInScheme = "Cookies";
options.Authority = "https://sso.neverc.cn";
options.ClientId = "mvc";
options.SaveTokens = true;
});
}

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env)
{
app.UseAuthentication();
app.UseMvcWithDefaultRoute();
}

public class HomeController : ControllerBase
{
[Authorize]
public ActionResult Index()
{
return new JsonResult(from c in User.Claims select new { c.Type, c.Value });
}
}

Hybrid

在Implicit方式中,id_token在浏览器中传输是适用的,但是access_token不应该暴露在浏览器中。

Hybrid模式则是在Implicit的基础上,再传输code,适用code模式来获取access_token。

步骤:

  1. 定义Client
  2. 使用Client

IdentityServer配置

Config:

new Client
{
ClientId = "hybrid",
AllowedGrantTypes = GrantTypes.Hybrid,
ClientSecrets = { new Secret("secret".Sha256()) },
RedirectUris = { "http://localhost:5002/signin-oidc" },
PostLogoutRedirectUris = { "http://localhost:5002/signout-callback-oidc" },
AllowedScopes = {
IdentityServerConstants.StandardScopes.OpenId,
IdentityServerConstants.StandardScopes.Profile,
"api1"
},
};

MvcClient配置

Startup:

.AddOpenIdConnect("oidc", options =>
{
options.SignInScheme = "Cookies";
options.Authority = "https://sso.neverc.cn";
options.ClientId = "mvc";
options.ClientSecret = "secret";
options.ResponseType = "code id_token";
options.SaveTokens = true;
options.Scope.Add("api1");
});

Controller:

public async Task<IActionResult> CallApiUsingUserAccessToken()
{
var accessToken = await HttpContext.GetTokenAsync("access_token");

var client = new HttpClient();
client.SetBearerToken(accessToken);
var content = await client.GetStringAsync("http://localhost:5001/identity");

ViewBag.Json = JArray.Parse(content).ToString();
return View("json");
}

在登录完成后,即可通过认证得到的access_token调用CallApiUsingUserAccessToken来调用API服务。

总结

本文为IdentityServer4做了基本的介绍。

实际上IdentityServer4还可以非常灵活的与ASP.NET Identity 以及 EF Core等组合使用。

另外基于ASP.NET Core,所以IdentityServer4也支持跨平台。

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